Keratoconus: how to protect your eyes from a gradual drop of vision

this condition is one of the  most popular chronically or slowly progressive ocular conditions that takes years to affect and impair a person’s vision. In this condition the cornea, the clear window at the front of the eye loses its natural spherical contour, and becomes thinned out ,bulging out at weak points and assuming a conical shape. This abnormality of shape and contour affects the bending of light rays at the corneal interface , causing irregular bending and defocus of these rays when they fall onto the retina, leading to drop of visual clarity and acuity. The condition affects one or both eyes with varying degrees, and the average age of affection is between 15 -25 years . 

What causes keratoconus?

The actual cause is unknown yet, but  research has shed light that a deficiency of certain building enzymes within the corneal stroma.  

The wear and tear that is constantly repaired by these enzymes is slowed down, causing excessive accumulation of diseased collagen fibers and oxygen free radicles, leading to weakening of the corneal stromal bridges, and hence weakness  and forward bulge of the cornea. 

Research has also linked the condition to certain hereditary factors and genetic conditions, which highlights the importance of family history in this condition. 

In addition, excessive unprotected exposure to sunlight and constant eye rubbing have also been implicated. Also, the misuse of poor-quality contact lenses has also been added to the predisposing factors. 

Available treatment options:

At the early stages of the disease , glasses and/or rigid contact lenses (Rose -K, RGP) can be used to treat the condition according to your doctor’s decision. 

As the condition worsens however, your ophthalmologist or eye surgeon may resort to corneal collagen cross linking or intracorneal ring implantation. 

What are the common symptoms for keratoconus?

Patient’s with this condition notice that their vision becomes gradually blurred and unclear with frequent change of their glasses prescription.

 This subtle symptom may progress over years or months and may affect both eyes and one eye more than the other .

 the most common early symptoms include 

  • Blurring of distant and near vision despite wearing the proper optical correction
  • Straight lines appear bent or skewed at different angles
  • Increased sensitivity to ,light and increased sense of haloes around the light 
  • Redness and swelling of the eye

Later symptoms become more ominous and include 

  • Increased blur and visual distortion that does not respond to  any form of optical correction
  • Intolerance to contact lenses
  • Progression of myopia and astigmatism

What are the various surgeries that can be used to treat the condition?

Corneal collagen cross linking:

 this procedure uses ultraviolet light rays and concentrated vit B2 eye drops to create and strengthen the interconnecting bridges between the collagen fibers in the corneal stroma, making it stronger and less liable to bulge. 

The vitamin B2 drops are instilled onto the eye over a period of 30 minutes, this is followed by further 30 minutes of ultraviolet exposure. 

intracorneal ring implantation

 these semicircular devices made of PMMA are inserted into tracks created within the stroma of the diseased cornea and help to restore visual clarity and acuity by flattening the cones and increasing corneal thickness therefore creating a smoother refractive surface and regular light refraction onto the retina.

Corneal implantation

 if the cornea is severely thinned out or damaged you might need to have it partially or fully replaced by  donor tissue. This surgery restores the natural anatomy of the cornea and may provide best visual outcomes for some cases

Not all keratoconus patients have the same condition or follow the same treatment protocol, or  respond to the same treatment modality, each treatment option is specifically tailored according to the presented case 


The latest technology to treat astigmatism Contoura vision

Astigmatism, or astigmatism, is a mismatch between the surface of the cornea and the inside of the eye. Often the problem occurs at birth and may be associated with short or long eyesight.

Astigmatism is a common defect that can be treated with lenses or surgery, but with the development of medical technologies, it has become easier to treat with Wave light Allegretto ex500.

What is astigmatism?

The human eye is naturally spherical, so the light is refracted evenly on the eye to clearly show the vision. In patients with astigmatism, the eye is shaped in an oval, which reflects light in more than one direction, and allows a certain part of the object to be seen to appear clearly at the expense of the other part, which makes the image blurred.

What are the symptoms of astigmatism?

Symptoms of astigmatism can vary from person to person, some people may not experience any symptoms at all, and the symptoms of astigmatism include:

  • Blurry or distorted vision in all directions (near or far).
  • Difficulty seeing at night.
  • Eye strain or discomfort from vision.
  • Squinting (pressing the eyes hard to see).
  • Eye irritation.
  • Feeling of headache.

What are the methods of treating astigmatism?

Almost all cases can be corrected with eyeglasses or contact lenses, and in some minor cases you may not need this procedure if there are no other vision problems present. While in some other cases astigmatism is associated with some visual problems such as keratoconus, in these cases there are two types of treatment:

1- Corrective Lenses

If you have astigmatism, your doctor will likely prescribe a special type of soft contact lens called toric. It can be made to bend light in one direction more than the other. If your condition is more severe, you may use rigid contact lenses, and your ophthalmologist will determine which is best for you.

2- Refractive processes

Refractive eye surgery refers to any surgical procedure used to repair vision problems. Recent years have witnessed tremendous developments in this field. Laser refractive eye surgery allows many patients to see better than at any other time in their lives.

Most types of vision correction surgery reshape the cornea to allow light to travel through it and focus properly on the back of the eye or the retina.

What is the difference between LASIK and Contoura vision?

LASIK technique is a surgical procedure that uses lasers to correct nearsightedness, farsightedness and astigmatism. In LASIK surgery, a thin incision is made in the cornea using either a microkeratome blade or a femtosecond laser. The surgeon folds the thin wound, then removes some corneal tissue beneath the wound using a laser.

In patients with nearsightedness or farsightedness, the goal of LASIK surgery is to restore the normal shape of the cornea and create light on the retina by making the cornea flat. LASIK can also correct astigmatism by correcting the shape of the cornea that is irregular to the normal shape of the cornea.

While Contoura vision is the latest medical development in the field of refractive surgery. During the annual meeting of the American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) in Las Vegas, November 14-17, 2015, Alcon presented new research findings to confirm the technology’s ability to treat glaucoma and cataracts and perform refractive surgeries.

Contoura Vision is a Tapography-guided LASIK technology, designed to provide surgeons with the ability to perform specialized laser procedures on patients with nearsightedness, farsightedness or whichever is associated with astigmatism.

What is wave light allegretto ex500 technology for astigmatism?

It is a new technology characterized by the inclusion of the ALLEGRO analyzer, whose main task is to measure the ability of the eye to see. The device works by sitting the patient in front of him and placing his head on the headrest and focusing on a specific image inside the device. The illuminated target helps the patient to maintain the stability of his eyes while taking the picture.

The device is characterized by high accuracy in reading measurements by means of a regular network of red spots flashing once while taking the picture. With ALLEGRO Analyzer, the patient will be able to get an idea of ​​his own eye defects and understand their causes.

What is the difference between the Wave light allegretto and other technologies?

In just a few minutes, you can start seeing the world in great detail, among the features of the technology:

High resolution

The doctor helps to correct vision by laser and reshape the cornea, while allowing light to pass through and refract precisely without suffering from astigmatism problems.

Super speed

Unlike the commonly used techniques, the device takes only seconds of laser treatment on each eye.


You may notice clearer vision immediately after the procedure, and your vision will continue to improve in the following months.